Sources Used in this Website

Conant, R. and J . R. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America (3rd ed., Expanded). R. T. Peterson (Ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Fogell, D. D. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Nebraska. P. W. Freeman (Ed.). Lincoln, NE: Conservation and Survey Division, School of Natural Resources, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Lynch, J. D. 1985. Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences.13:33-57.

Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.


Brackin, M. F. 1979. The seasonal Reproductive, Fat Body, and Adrenal Cycles of Male Six-Lined Racerunners (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) in Central Oklahoma. Herpetologica. 35(3): 216-222.

Breckenridge, W. J. 1943. The Life History of the Black-Banded Skink Eumeces sepentrionalis. American Midland Naturalist. 29(3):591-606.

Cagle, F. R. 1940. Eggs and Natural Nests of Eumeces fasciatus. American Midland Naturalist.23(1):227-233.

Jones, S. M. and R. E. Ballinger. 1987. Comparative Life Histories of Holbrookia Maculata and Sceloporus Undulatus in Western Nebraska. Ecology. 68(6):1828-1838.

Pitt, W. C. 2001. Density of Prairie Skinks (Eumeces septentrionalis) in Old-Field Habitats. American Midland Naturalist. 146(1):86-93.

Tinkle, D. W., Dunham, A. E., and J. D. Congdon. 1993. Life History and Demographic Variation in the Lizard Sceloporus graciosus: A Long-Term Study. Ecology.74(8):2413-2429.


Fitzpatrick, B. M. and H. B. Shaffer. 2004. Environment-Dependent Admixture Dynamics in a Tiger Salamander Hybrid Zone. Evolution. 58(6):1282-1293.

Walston, L. J. and S. J. Mullin. 2007. Responses of a Pond-Breeding Amphibian Community to the Experimental Removal of Predatory Fish. American Midland Naturalist.157(1):63-73.


Plummer, M. V. 1977. Activity, Habitat, and Population Structure in the Turtle, Trionyx muticus. Copeia. 1977(3):431-440.

Ruane, S., Dinkelacker, S. A., and J. B. Iverson. 2008. Demographic and Reproductive Traits of Blanding’s Turtles, Emydoidea blandingii, at the Western Edge of the Species’ Range. Copeia. 2008(4):771-779.

Vogt, R. C., and J. J. Bull. 1984. Ecology of Hatchling Sex Ratio in Map Turtles. Ecology.65(2):582-587.

White, J. B. and G. G. Murphy. 1973. The Reproductive Cycle and Sexual Dimorphism of the Common Snapping Turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. Herpetologica. 29(3):240-246.


Aldridge, R. D. 1979. Seasonal Spermatogenesis in Sympatric Crotalus viridis and Arizona elegans in New Mexico. Journal of Herpetology. 13(2):187-192.

Fitch, H. S. 1963. Natural History of the Black Rat Snake (Elaphe o. obsoleta) in Kansas. Copeia.1963(4):649-658.

Gibbons, J. W. 1972. Reproduction, Growth, and Sexual Dimorphism in the Canebrake Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus atricaudatus). Copeia. 1972(2):222-226.

Hensley, R. C. and K. G. Smith. 1986. Eastern Bluebird Responses to Nocturnal Black Rat Snake Nest Predation. The Wilson Bulletin. 98(4):602-603.

Iverson, J. B., Young, C. A., and T. S. Akre. 2008. Body Size and Growth in the Bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi) in the Nebraska Sandhills. Journal of Herpetology. 42(3):501-507.

Jellen, B. C., Shepard, D. B., Dreslik, M. J., and C. A. Phillips. 2007. Male Movement and Body Size Affect Mate Acquisition in the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus). Journal of Herpetology. 41(3):451-457.

Rosen, P. C. 1991. Comparative Ecology and Life History of the Racer (Coluber constrictor) in Michigan. Copeia. 1991(4):897-909.

Seigel, R. A. and H. S. Fitch. 1985. Annual Variation in Reproduction in Snakes in a Fluctuating Environment. Journal of Animal Ecology. 54(2):497-505.


Blomquist, S. M. and M. L. Hunter Jr. 2007. Externally Attached Radio-Trasmitters Have Limited Effects on the Antipredator Behavior and Vagility of Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica. Journal of Herpetology. 41(3):430-438.

Bragg, A. N. 1967. Recent Studies on the Spadefoot Toads. Bios. 38(2):75-84.

Carpenter, H. L. and E. O. Morrison. 1973. Feeding Behavior of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in North Central Texas. Bios. 44(4):188-193.

Corn, P. S. and L. J. Livo. 1989. Leopard Frog and Wood Frog Reproduction in Colorado and Wyoming. Northwestern Naturalist. 70(1):1-9.

Fitch, H. S. 1956. A Field Study of the Kansas Ant-Eating Frog, Gastrophryne olivacea. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History. 8(4):275-306.

Johnson, B. K. and J. L. Christiansen. 1976. The Food and Food Habits of Blanchard’s Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae), in Iowa. Journal of Herpetology.10(2):63-74.